Counter Force is an important concept in all martial arts such as jiu jitsu, boxing, and muay thai.


Surface variation and the amount of counterforce

The counter force is equal to the applied force when a stable surface is used.

The less stable the surface, the less will be the counterforce.  Examples include: (a) decreased friction on ice (fast skating); (b) increased friction running in the sand; and (c) quality of a trampoline bed (i.e., new vs. old, as in sagging).

Direction of the counter force

The direction of the counterforce is directly opposite that of the applied force.

The counter force is most effective when it is perpendicular to the supporting surface.  If not perpendicular, the cforce is separated into two components, vertical and horizontal.  Hence, it is important to consider the trajectory angle.

Counterforce in striking activities

The amount of force a striking implement imparts to an object depends upon the combined momentum of the implement and the object at the moment of impact.  Also, it depends on the mass of the object and the implement.  Examples include baseball bat hitting a baseball or a tennis racket hitting a tennis ball.

Temporarily stored counterforce
If a surface or implement used in a performance has elasticity, then an applied force produces bend or compression that represents stored force, and the stored force increases the propulsive force over what it would be if elasticity were not present.  Examples include pole vaulting (e.g., fiberglass poles bend more and store more energy than aluminum poles) and diving boards (the aluminum board vs. the wooden board).

Surface contact while applying forces to external objects
In throwing, pushing, pulling, and striking activities, one or both feet should be keep in firm contact with the supporting surface until the force providing motion is complete, otherwise the maximum force is decreased.

The concept of counter force in martial arts such as jiu jitsu, muay thai and boxing